Giulio Maria Pasinetti, MD, PhD, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, describes how environmental toxins are associated with microglia sodium-channel mediated inflammatory response. A study evaluating the role of permethrin, a commonly used insecticide, found that this neurotoxin can cross the blood-brain barrier and activate an inflammatory response in microglial cells. This complex mechanism can lead to the acceleration of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Age is the highest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, as it influences inflammatory response in the inflammasome. Therefore, environmental stress and aging may work together to accelerate age-related neurodegenerative conditions. Another factor recently being researched is the role of psychological stress and mental health. This interview took place at the AD/PD™ 2022 International Conference on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases hosted in Barcelona, Spain.